Why Hypothesis Is Important In An Undergraduate Research

  1. Introduction

 

The most important step in the research process is choosing the study subject, after which the researcher develops the hypothesis. In addition to providing a rational explanation for a specific incident, a strong hypothesis directs the researcher in the right direction.

A "hypothesis" is a specific prediction assertion conceptually. It is a researcher's early, speculative explanation of or hypothesis regarding what the researcher anticipates the result of an investigation to be. It describes a potential connection between two or more phenomena and causes and is an educated or informed hypothesis. It is the most thorough way to convey a problem-solving strategy. A issue is different from a hypothesis. A problem is expressed as an inquiry, which acts as the starting point or basis for the development of a hypothesis during Undergraduate Research Project Studies. An alternate explanation for the problem is a hypothesis. While a hypothesis can be validated and confirmed, an issue (question) can only be directly addressed. A hypothesis is developed when the problem has been defined and the literature review is finished. It is created when a researcher is fully informed on the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the issue.

  1. Objectives of Hypothesis

          The following are the objectives of a hypothesis in a research;

  • It provides empirically testable explanations for the correlations between those variables.
  • It demonstrates that the researcher has sufficient prior knowledge to offer recommendations to expand current knowledge.
  • It helps to direct an inquiry.
  • It organizes the next part of the research and so provides continuity to the investigation of the problem.
  • It is a strong instrument in the research process for obtaining reliable knowledge.
  1. Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

          The following are features of a good hypothesis;

  • It should be capable of illuminating.
  • It should make every effort to provide an appropriate explanation for the phenomena.
  • The information must be verified.
  • Written in plain, clear language.
  • Correspond to prior knowledge.
  • Testable in light of present understanding.
  • Terms that is clear and straightforward.
  • Describes the anticipated connection between variables.
  • Its scope should be constrained.

 

 4.      Importance of Hypothesis in Research

          The following are the importance of a research in research;

  • It fosters the expansion of knowledge in a certain field.
  • It helps the researcher to make reasonable estimates about unknown situations based on logically known facts.
  • It gives the research orientation.
  • It gives a foundation for the researcher to choose sample and statistical approaches.
  • It serves as the foundation for reporting the study's findings.
  1. Formulating a Hypothesis

Hypotheses are educated guesses or preliminary generalizations, but they are not random. Hypotheses are the result of a great deal of thought and creativity.The hypotheses are created in a variety of ways, but they are often the product of an inductive logical thought process in which experiences lead to the construction of a theory. The researchers then employ a variety of logical strategies to conclude at a hypothesis.

Hypothesis is a precursor to a research topic and is frequently regarded as an inquiry or query. It usually questions what or why there is a link between variables. It is only a preliminary investigation based on literature studies, questionnaires, and intuition. This might be a question, an announcement, or a declaration. The investigator can utilize these explainable assertions to solve the research challenge. The depth of prior information, the adaptability of intellect, and analogy are usually three essential aspects that influence the creation of the hypothesis.

  1. Types of Hypothesis

Hypotheses are classed according on their variation (inductive and deductive hypotheses) and phrasing.

  1. Hypothesis of research: It is a variable-to-variable connection that shows the importance of the interaction.If A is correct, B will follow. A student who studies well for an exam, for example, will experience less test anxiety.In this case, the researcher may link two factors such as test anxiety and study habits.
  2. Null hypothesis:A null hypothesis contradicts and negates a declarative hypothesis' declaration. It indicates that even though it looks to be genuine, it is far away owing to a mere threat.It is the researcher's responsibility to reject the null hypothesis by demonstrating that the ultimate results mentioned in the declarative hypothesis actually occur and that the measure of it is described such that it cannot be easily denied as having occurred unintentionally or by chance.

The null hypothesis is further subdivided into the two categories listed below:

  1. Non directional null hypothesis:This kind will look for distinctions or patterns. Statement examples are shown below:
  • • There is no distinction in variable x between two groups. 
  • There is no distinction in variable x between two groups. 
  • There is no relationship Variable x and variable y.
  1. Directional null hypothesis: This type can predict the direction of the differences. The reason for this estimation be the investigator’s previous information or evidence of expert knowledge or self-observation of facts or events and not a simple prediction. The researchers suggest this can be proved statistically also. For example:
  • Group B has a higher mean score than Group A.
  • Group B has a higher mean score than Group A and Group C.
  • There is no positive relationship between the variables x and y
  1. Hypothesis Testing

The statistician Ronald Fisher explained the concept of hypothesis testing with a story of a lady testing tea who claimed that tea with milk tasted different depending on whether the milk was added to the tea or the tea added to the milk. After the formulation of the hypotheses according to the criteria discussed above, they are subjected to the empirical as well as logical testing. Some hypotheses are simple and can be tested directly. In some situations, they are complex and necessitate collection of evidence by selecting or developing data collection instruments, data analysis and to interpret the results in the light of hypothesis. The steps are as follows:

  1. Identify the null and alternative hypothesis.
  2. State the level of significance.
  3. Select the standardized test statistic.
  4. State the rejection region.
  5. Calculate the standardized test statistic and see if it fails in the rejection region.
  6. Make a statistical decision.
  7. If the test statistic falls in the critical region: Reject null hypothesis in favor of alternative hypothesis. If the test statistic does not fall in the critical region: It can be concluded that there is not enough evidence to reject null hypothesis.

Conclusion

According to the researchers'/investigators' perspective, the hypothesis might be thought of as a working assumption or a tentative premise, but it is a vital instrument for achieving reliable information.It not only describes the link between the many factors under consideration, but it also serves as the foundation for summarizing the study's findings. As a result, researchers must exercise extreme caution while developing appropriate hypotheses.

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