Diabetes mellitus commonly known as diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. It refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. There is a hormone called insulin which moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make. However, the underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

Read also undergraduate project topics on diabetes management and control

Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes. Pre-diabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. And pre-diabetes is often the precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.

In Diabetes the glucose level of the body become increased from normal level due to either increased secretion of insulin, inactivity of insulin or both. Increase in glucose level for a long time causes serious complications such as dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels etc. Diabetes mellitus associated with some other pathogenic processes. It starts with the destruction of beta cells of the pancreas by autoimmune disease causing low secretion of insulin from beta cells of pancreas and desensitization of receptor responsible for the action of insulin. Because of above abnormalities in insulin, the normal metabolic process of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates become disturbed.


Diabetes is the condition in which the body does not properly process food for use as energy. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies.

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. With diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't effectively use the insulin it does make.

When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes sugars to build up in your blood. This is why many people refer to diabetes as “sugar.” Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations.



Diabetes mellitus (DM) as a metabolic disorder associated with high glucose level due to either defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both is on the increase worldwide. It is common for both gender i.e male and female. The main factors responsible for this worldwide problem are genetic disorder, behavioral and environmental risk factors.


One of the causes of diabetes is the excessive intake of sugar both inform of solid food or liquid drinks. People need to be educated on these causes of diabetes because ignorance they say is a disease. When people are educated on these causes, they will be mindful and conscious of what they eat and drink. Sugar level of every individual at all ages need to be in check at all times to avoid any metabolic diseases such as diabetes. However, the key to managing diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible.


Obesity is another underlying cause of diabetes in patients. When the intake of sugar is not pout in check, it can lead to obesity and obesity in turn can lead to diabetes. This is because the more fatty tissue you have, the more resistant your cells become to insulin.


Some people have diabetes because some members of the family whether in the past or in the present have a medical record of diabetes. Therefore, the risk increases if a parent or siblings have type 2diabetes.


There are various symptoms that indicate an individual is suffering from diabetes and some of these symptoms are:


One of the symptoms that indicate or sends a message that one is suffering from diabetes is frequent urination. Even though frequent urination is not enough reason to conclude that one is suffering from diabetes since there are other underlying reasons for urinating frequently such as pregnancy, cold weather etc. but one is most likely to dictate diabetes when two or more symptoms are prevalent and consistent. Therefore, other symptoms of diabetes must be observed closely to come to a conclusion.


Another symptom to look out for when your wounds don’t heal fast as they should and also look out for is it consistency. Most wounds end up healing by themselves without even medical attention. But when your wounds don’t heal fast in spite of medical attention given to it, it’s a sign that you are likely suffering from a metabolic disease known as diabetes.


When you feel tired quickly and unnecessary especially when you’ve not done any activity to warrant such tiredness, it’s an indication of diabetes especially when other symptoms are positive.



One of the ways to manage diabetic patients is to administer insulin injection.  It is important to achieve good metabolic control by mimicking physiological insulin secretion as much as possible and also minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. Matching insulin requirement with carbohydrate intake and physical activity and combining it with frequent self-monitoring are prerequisites for a successful therapeutic strategy in a diabetic patient.

The majority of patients will require more than one daily injection if good glycaemic control is to be achieved. However, a once-daily injection of an intermediate acting preparation may be effectively used in some patients. Twice-daily mixtures of short and intermediate acting insulin are a commonly used regimen.


Another way to mange a diabetic patient is to try as much as possible to avoid eating too much of a fatty food. In as much as the body needs fats and oil, it is most important that we put it to check and know the right fats our body needs in order to avoid some underlying diseases.


Vegetables have shown to be very healthy for the body and an important food to consider for weight loss and weight check. You can never go wrong with vegetables. Therefore, it is advised that people of all ages inculcate the habit of adding vegetables to their meals because it has a lots of health benefits. Vegetables must be considered in the management of a diabetic patient.


Physical activity promotes weight reduction and improves insulin sensitivity, thus lowering blood glucose levels. Together with dietary treatment, a programme of regular physical activity and exercise should be considered for each person. Such a programme must be tailored to the individual’s health status and fitness. People should, however, be educated about the potential risk of hypoglycaemia and how to avoid it.


The overall goal of diabetes management is to help individuals with diabetes and their families gain the necessary knowledge, life skills, resources and support needed to achieve optimal health. This requires a team effort that includes diabetes health care professionals and the individuals who must deal with this chronic condition on a daily basis. The registered dietitian is a key member of the health care team, who plays an integral role in the individualization of management strategies for people with diabetes and those at risk for developing it.


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