In a study, rigour refers to quality control; without rigour, there is no science. For your study to be valid, dependable, generalizable, and authentic, it must be rigorous. So, in a sense, rigour comes first, and only then can you state that your  education research guides possesses all of the other characteristics. While rigour increases a study's validity, reliability, and repeatability, it is not the only factor to consider.
Rigor, which is also known as control, is a term used in both science and everyday life. "A technique of strictly following to certain limitations, or the discipline of ensuring strict consistency with predefined criteria," according to Wikipedia. Rigor in science and research refers to being precise, meticulous, and regulated. Along with that, rigour necessitates objectivity and honesty when conducting research.

In qualitative or quantitative research, how can rigour be achieved? In general, rigour is defined as a researcher's grasp of and use of rigour in two ways: scientifically and ethically. Readers critique the research once it is published, but the researcher is solely responsible for conducting a thorough investigation.

Rigor in science

Every step of the research process must be rigorous. Make sure you've got a solid design, methodology, analysis methodologies, interpretation and findings, bibliography, and research writing down pat.

Quantitative research with rigour

A qualitative or survey-based research design requires a different form of control than an experimental or quantitative investigation. Quantitative research might be structured in a certain, pre-determined way. This form of pre-determined plan aids in the management of your research. All you have to do now is stay exact and accurate while following the pre-planned strategy. Furthermore, because quantitative research is objective in nature, there is little danger of bias or subjectivity being introduced to your research if you completed the proper testing, repeated it several times, and then used the appropriate statistical test. Control, repetition, randomization, blinding, bias control measures, robust and accurate statistical procedures, adequate and accurate experimental design, and suitable and authentic models, for example, must all be used in an experiment. The research that follows will be objective, thorough, and well-controlled.

Qualitative research must be rigorous.

Quantitative research, on the other hand, differs from qualitative research in a number of ways. The attribute of being exact, stiff, and precise is described as rigour in the dictionary. Rigor also entails being meticulous and precise, as well as adhering to strict guidelines. When we examine qualitative research, we find that it rarely lends itself to rigid limitations. The researcher has little control in qualitative research, and as the investigation progresses, so does the researcher. As a result, both the researcher and the research must be adaptable to the research's progress. As a result, adhering to some strict limitations is challenging.

When achieving rigour in qualitative research is challenging, qualitative researchers move to trustworthiness. Because the researcher can always impact the research regardless of the methods, methodology, or statistical tools used in a qualitative study. It is more about trustworthiness than rigour and control because the researcher can always inject his subjectivity or prejudice into the investigation. Peer debriefing, corroboration, extended engagement, disclosure, auditability, and negative case analysis are some of the strategies used by the researcher.

You must also properly report your study findings while developing a rigorous and controlled design. This will demonstrate to your readers that your research is transparent, as well as aid others in replicating it.

Rigidity in terms of ethics

Ethical rigour is more critical here since a lack of rigour in research might lead to prejudice, fabrication, carelessness, or other deliberate deception. The researcher has a duty to present just what he knows to be true. The table below shows some of the ways a researcher can fool his readers by bringing fake rigour into his research.

Crafty rigour, or creative rigour, is a term used to describe a

This is another example of a lack of rigour in which the researcher deceives the audience by claiming that the study followed strict research guidelines. In this case, the researcher applies rigour to only a portion of the study, which can lead to inaccurate findings. Even if one portion of the research is done incorrectly, the results of the entire study can be incorrect.

This is not as severe as intentionally misleading rigour, but it is still a major scientific transgression. By doing so, the researcher jeopardises scientific integrity.

Rigidity without thought

At some point in our lives, we've all been reckless. When excessive carelessness is displayed, it becomes offensive. For one or more of the following reasons, the researcher may become careless during a study. One, to finish the research in a shorter amount of time; two, to avoid boredom or exhaustion as a result of arduous work; or three, to avoid external constraints.

Everyone in today's world is in a rush, and that haste convinces us that it's okay to be a little irresponsible. We don't always think of it as carelessness; instead, we believe that if we receive the results quickly or publish our research on time, it will be beneficial to us and others. However, we are compromising the rigour and control that we should have implemented. Some researchers, for example, do not wait to repeat their findings two or three times to ensure that they are accurate. This lack of rigour has the potential to have long-term consequences, although we don't expect it at this time.

Strict adherence

The application of rigour to each step of the research process aids in the creation of a trustworthy and valid study. Such a researcher understands that science and research's integrity is more important than any other gain. As a result, the researcher conducts an open and transparent investigation while adhering to all scientific and research community regulations.

Putting up with a lot of punishment

It's a long-lasting rigour, as the name suggests. The most trustworthy, valid, and repeatable research is that which has a long-term rigour. To do such research, however, the researcher must devote more time, effort, and energy, as well as, in certain cases, additional financial resources. The researcher, on the other hand, makes no concessions to his research's accuracy or authenticity.

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