Parenting education may be defined as any deliberate effort to help parents be more effective in caring for children. There are many different processes for educating parents, including group meetings, resource centers, newsletters, radio programs, home visits, mentoring, Internet resources, support groups, and books. The content of these different efforts varies substantially, ranging from behavior-management approaches to relationship enhancement approaches. What the programs have in common is the conviction that parents play a vital role in the development of children and that it is possible to help parents be more effective through training and education.
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Parenting education is conducted in many settings: school, health and religious organizations, and the community. It is conducted by people with different backgrounds including human development, nursing, psychology, social work, and education. There is a growing awareness in society that many social problems are the result of inadequate parenting education; parents are not automatically equipped to deal with the challenges of childrearing. Moreover, many social changes put additional pressures on families and limit their connections with family members and others. For example, since World War II there have been increased numbers of mothers working outside the home, increased rates of divorce, greater distances from extended family, and increased involvement with negative electronic media, and more overloaded family schedules. All of these changes can make the job of parenting more challenging.
CONTENT OF PARENTING EDUCATION
There are many different approaches to parenting education, each with different assumptions about the nature of humans (Are people basically good or bad?), the optimal outcome (Do we want an obedient child or an independent thinker?), and the process of change (Are people motivated by command or by invitation?). Advice given to parents centuries ago emphasized that children should submit to parents. With the growth of serious research on child development in the twentieth century, the definition of effective parenting has changed dramatically. Since the 1930s, there has been a clear recommendation that parents provide loving, supportive, involved care.
PROCESSES OF PARENTING EDUCATION
There are many ways to reach parents with messages for more effective parenting. Group meetings are the traditional way of teaching parents new skills. Meetings may include lectures, discussions, videos, role-playing, and opportunities for practicing skills. It seems likely that, if group meetings are to help parents be more caring and understanding, they must be conducted by leaders who are caring and understanding. Although group meetings may be difficult for parents to attend regularly, the group can offer much-needed social support. Many parents turn to books to inform their child-rearing efforts. Parents can find help in identifying good books and web sites through use of books such as Authoritative Guide to Self-Help Resources in Mental Health. The Internet is becoming an increasingly important avenue for delivering parenting education. Courses, articles, and parenting tips are available at many sites. As the versatility and sophistication of web-based technologies increase, parenting education resources on the Internet will likely incorporate more sound and video components. The Internet has not only become a significant source for parenting resources, it has also created opportunities for virtual conferencing and training. Webcasting will allow parent educators to provide or participate in conferences or training over the Internet. Web-based tracking and diagnostic tools are increasingly being used to customize information. As this evolving technology is incorporated into parenting information databases, users will have easy access to information that is relevant to their own needs and preferences. One challenge will be to clearly distinguish between parenting education and virtual counseling or therapy.
It has been widely accepted that the family milieu plays a significant role in children’s development. In psychology, the ecological theories of development have placed emphasis on the role played by the microsystem which is composed of persons who take care of the child, as well as the interaction of this microsystem with other systems in which it is situated. It has been demonstrated that the way in which parents exercise their roles has an impact on the child’s development and his/her school success. A great deal of research has attempted to identify characteristics of different intervention methods and approaches used by parents that induce favorable child development not only at physical, but also at cognitive.
The idea of training parents explicitly by using 'best practices' emerged in the United States in the 1970s. These parenting practices were based on scientific observation and stressed that certain types of parenting practices were more favorable for child development. The concepts of parenting and parenting education took shape in this particular context during a period when behaviorism reigned supreme. This theoretical framework, which employed stimulation and reinforcement methods through which children were used as subjects, was severely criticized and called into question. It was during this period that the term “program” referring to parenting education practices came into use. Although initially parenting education programs concerned mainly ‘at risk’ families, today the interest in parenting education programs is widespread on a global scale. This growing interest is related to the bewilderment that today’s human societies are experiencing, and it is the consequence of the internationalization of communication and technological developments. In the face of emerging and evolving situations, families often feel helpless and their immediate environments do not always offer models to provide them with satisfactory answers. Moreover, internationalization asserts some values that are perceived as righteous (e.g. gender equality, respect for the child etc.) and societies adapt to reconcile new ways of thinking. At present, parenting education programs seem to be the remedy to these individual or societal changes and demands. Today, as well as answering some common needs concerning all families, parenting education programs aim to respond to the specific needs of disabled children, intellectually-gifted children, children with behavioral disorders, and children with specific diseases, without excluding the needs of families with abusive, deficient or pathogenic parents
QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE PARENT EDUCATORS
Having a solid understanding of the theoretical foundations of parenting programs helps us to sort programs based on philosophies, assumptions, and goals, thus enabling us to select a program that is theoretically sound and an appropriate match for our audience and outcomes of interest. However, regardless of the theoretical basis of a program, it is unlikely to be optimally effective unless it is delivered by a competent parent educator. It has been difficult to develop a set of agreed-upon standards or competencies of parenting educators because people working in this capacity have varied educational backgrounds (both in terms of academic discipline as well as level of education) and work in a wide range of settings (e.g., for profit, nonprofit, schools, hospitals, community service organizations). Despite these challenges, several individuals and entities have nonetheless attempted to identify the core competencies of parenting educators (i.e., the agreed-upon set of required attitudes, skills, and knowledge) as a first step toward creating professional development opportunities leading to standardized credentials. If you have a passion for helping others improve their parenting, these are the skills and attributes you might want to consider developing through your coursework, practicum placements, or paid or volunteer work.
ATTITUDE OF PARENT TOWARDS EDUCATION
Positive attitude towards education is very important to get success. And it is the parents who inspire the children to be educated and make all the arrangements to make them educated. Therefore, the parental attitude towards education is the utmost influential factor of the students‟ academic achievement. In, India the attitude towards education is also full of discrepancy due to the gender discrimination and locality of the residence. Till now, there is a lack of awareness of women education among the parents till now. Therefore, the investigator feels an urgent need to conduct a study on the relationship between parental attitude towards education and academic achievement of undergraduate students.
THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTING EDUCATION TO UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
Parenting education improves parents’ sense of self- efficacy and competency, as well as parental satisfaction. It can also result in positive changes in parents’ attitudes about parenting as well as their self-esteem and feelings of self-mastery.
Parenting education promotes the use of positive parenting practices, such as using positive language, planned discipline, and family routines. It also encourages nurturing behavior and increases parents’ knowledge of child development and Parenting education often results in more social connections among parents. Parents use these connections to exchange parenting advice, provide emotional support, and share resources. This can lead to more positive feelings about parenting overall.
Undergraduate students of parents who participate in parenting education programs often demonstrate increases in their prosocial behaviors (e.g., empathy, sharing, helping others) and decreases in negative externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression)
Parenting education programs can help improve communication skills between parents and children, and result in an overall better understanding between family members.
Parents may also experience short-term improvements in mental health, including a decrease in depression, anxiety, anger, guilt, and stress.
Parent education programs help parents learn alternatives to physical punishment and change the family mindset regarding appropriate expectations of children, appropriate family roles, and other values that discourage the use of corporal