Leadership And Management In Non-Profit Organization: Perspective From Nigeria

Leadership is a research topic as well as a practical talent that encompasses an individual's, groups, or organization's ability to "lead," influence, or direct other people, teams, or the entire organization.

Management is the administration of an organization, whether it be a company, a non-profit, or a government agency. Managers' roles in firms have changed substantially during the last few decades. The function of managers has been significantly impacted by significant organizational changes such as greater use of communication technologies, downsizing, flattening of hierarchies, new matrix management structures, and the deployment of cross functional teams. As a result, the value of a position that was once critical to the organization is now being questioned. Few jobs in business have been as reviled as middle managers, who are frequently labeled as waste and overhead, as well as gatekeepers and controls who are risk averse (Haneberg, 2015). Not only has the number of managers decreased over time, but other scholars dispute if the position's importance has been diminished (Stoker, 2016). As a result of all of this development, some have speculated that the future of managers may be bleak (Stoker, 2016). Many authors, on the other hand, are more positive and envision a new role for center- or middle-leaders emerging (Dopson& Stewart, 2010; Floyd & Wooldridge, 2016; McDermott, 2013). For example, a study by Yang, Zhang and Tsui (2010) has discovered that managers' leadership practices have a considerably greater impact on individuals in lower-level jobs than those in higher-level positions. Other research suggests that managers are better equipped to lead change projects because they have the right abilities (Dopson& Stewart, 2010; Huy, 2018; Kanter, 2017; Sethi, 2014). As a result, boards of directors are increasingly looking to their managers to take on more leadership responsibilities within the company (Huy, 2018).

Senior executives aren't the only ones who want greater leadership from their managers; subordinates also anticipate more of these qualities from their bosses. Employees want their managers to lead by giving a vision for the future, improved communication and inclusion in decision-making, coaching and skill development, and increased empowerment (McDermott, 2013). Managers are being told that they must be leaders, but the concept of leading, as opposed to managing, is often difficult to grasp (Carroll & Levy, 2018). Their jobs become less process-oriented and more people-focused as they seek to achieve these new leadership standards. Regrettably, many managers have yet to acquire more people-oriented leadership approaches (Stoker, 2016). If managers are to be successful in their role as leaders, they must first understand the various skill sets required for effective management and leadership.

Managers at non-profit businesses may find it more challenging than their for-profit counterparts to make the transition to a more central leadership role. Nonprofit organizations, in general, have had a difficult time implementing management and leadership abilities into their operations. Until around 50 years ago, non-profit organizations thought management was a terrible thing since it was too closely associated with for-profit company, which they were not (Drucker, 2010). However, time and an increasingly dynamic environment have prompted a shift in thinking, and non-profit organizations now recognize the importance of cultivating great management talent, particularly when many traditional measures of growth and success, such as profits, no longer exist.

It's been a similar experience bringing leadership skills to non-profits. Non-profit leaders demonstrated leadership abilities at their peril until a few decades ago. Boards, which are typically made up of strong leaders, appeared unwilling to employ a strong leader to run the firm, instead assigning them low-level titles like executive director (Project Clue). Today's non-profit organizations understand the importance of good leadership and management (Hesselbein, 2011). They also recognize that in the years ahead, leadership strategies that encourage a less hierarchical structure and more participation from everyone in the organization will be critical to their success: “Future non-profits will require leaders at all levels of the organization, as well as staff members who can quickly adjust to changing circumstances.” (Green, 2011:32)

In a non-profit company, balancing leadership and management skills has proven to be difficult. According to Stid and Bradech (2017)Non-profit organizations, particularly those led by founders, have a tendency to be over-led and under-managed. This is due in large part to non-profits' financial challenges, which shift energy to operations that produce immediate results, such as fundraising, which relies on a visionary, charismatic leader to connect with funders. Furthermore, there is little compensation for demonstrating superior management abilities; contributors' emotional attachment to an organization is based on its objective, not on how effectively it is run. A focus on management has been hampered by a conviction, according to Drucker (2013:276) that "good intentions and a pure heart are all that is required." They haven't yet accepted responsibility for their actions and outcomes.”

Within a non-profit, developing both leadership and management abilities will be critical to establishing and maintaining success. As stated by project clue, “Without a doubt, leadership is a tremendously strong resource. However, good leadership alone cannot fully and efficiently address all of the difficulties that NGOs face; organizations must also produce successful management. “The friction between leadership and management considerations will persist,” they say, “So it's critical to be on the lookout for signs that suggest a need to adapt or renew management efforts.” Understanding the distinction between leadership and management will aid in maintaining this balance and recognizing which skill sets require development.

The current recession is one of the most serious issues that non-profits are experiencing. They've been harmed as revenue streams have dried up and demand for services has soared. Staff reductions and program activity reductions have taken their toll, and a new report that questioned non-profit leaders about managing in difficult circumstances recommended that organizations focus on identifying those people who are vital to both short- and long-term success especially when doing Undergraduate Project Topics and Research. This conclusion shows that in order to survive in this environment, non-profit organizations must have a balance of management and leadership abilities throughout the company.According to Nanus and Dobbs (2014:10), “If a nonprofit organization is to prosper, it must have both effective leadership and good administration. Both are necessary, but neither is adequate. Thousands of worthwhile non-profit organizations fail every year due to a lack of one or the other.” Non-profit organizations must clearly embrace techniques that aid in the development of both their managers and leaders. Therefore the study centers on Leadership and management in Non-profit organization

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