Information And Communication Technology (ICT) And Educational Development

ICT stands for “Information and communication technology”. It refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunication. It is similar to Information Technology (IT) but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, cell phones and other communication mediums. It means we have more opportunities to use ICT in teacher training programmes now days and improve quality of teacher for teach effectively. According to UNESCO “ICT is a scientific, technological and engineering discipline and management technique used in handling information, its application and association with social, economic and cultural matters”. Teacher is the main part of the educational field in our society. He more works for the improvement level of our society in the every field. Skilled teachers can make the creative students in form of the good social worker, politician, poet, philosopher etc. for the society.

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Teachers can play a friendly role with the learner. The rapid development in technology has made creatively changes in the way we live, as well as the demands of the society. Recognizing the impact of new technologies on the workplace and everyday life, today’s teacher education institutions try to restructure their education programs and classroom facilities, in order to minimize the teaching and learning technology gap between today and the future.

ICT

Information Communication Technology (ICT) will mean all electronic system that has to do with information gathering, processing and disseminations. These include all forms of computer system. Information technology is a technique and the equipment that facilitates the acquisition, recording, processing, storing, retrieval, transmitting and receiving information that has been processed using some electronic equipment and appropriate methods.

                UNESCO further defines Information Communication as the scientific, technological engineering and management techniques used in information handling and processing. The term Information Communication Technology originated from the coming together of three (3) technologies (micro electronics, computer and communications). Microelectronics are made from the reduction of electronic circuits on sting silicon chips so as to receive a small raw data and organize it into meaningful information.

Computers are the major platform upon which Information Communication Technology stands on communication. The processes of telecommunication using telephone and telegraphic lines to send messages from one place to another, is the third aspect of Information Communication Technology.

Information communication involves 3 processes:

  • CHIPS: Minute (very small) storage of information like microforms, magnetic types disc and video discs.
  • The mechanism to manipulate, scan and search such stored recorded information as well as organized new record using computers
  • Telecommunication systems and networks provide cheap and instant means of transmission (sending) of information.

Computer is an electronic machine or a set of machines which accepts raw data presented to it in a specific format carries out some operations on the data and produces results in a specific format as information for:

  1. Human decision making
  2. Signal to control some other machines or processes
  • Further input into some other machines

A computer is any machine or device, under the control of a stored program, can accept data in a prescribed form, process the data and supply the results as information in a specific form Computer comes from the word compute meaning calculate. It could be seen as a machine that performs arithmetic and logical operation quickly. They can store and process information and data and then made available to the users efficiently. With the general purpose of software, computer is no longer the domain of mathematicians, engineers and scientist. The name computer was later changed from computer to Information Technology (IT). Information technology is concerned with the handling and processing of information using electronic devices. It creates opportunity to handle, text and images, numbers and graphs, instruction, sound and music and to process information by organizing, storing and retrieving, sorting and analyzing, presenting and communicating.

EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

This essay has argued that investment in education is essential for development; largely by discussing the problems that occur as a result of sub-optimal levels of education that are highly damaging to development, as well as some of the challenges facing effective educational provision in lDcs, and the possible policy implementations to combat this. this essay has argued that a focus on educational investment is necessary for development due to its positive effects on income, human capacity, technology transfer, and in improving health outcomes. This essay has also focused on the highly debilitating problems of absenteeism and gender inequalities in education. This essay has argued that government intervention in the educational sector is necessary, but with the caveat that the form of their intervention and investment must be cognizant of recent empirical findings such as those included in this paper. Finally, this essay has suggested possible policies such as the implementation of ccts that, if adopted by policymakers, may catalyse improvement educational outcomes, and therefore foster development within lDcs.

ICT AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

When going into the key areas of ICT applications, education is the first and best possibility to influence in development. The central question is whether and under which conditions the improved access to ICTs can enhance the individual and collective capabilities of people to better achieve the lifestyle they value. It seems that literacy is the key element, and similarly newly acquired ‘informational capabilities’ can act as an agent for change for individuals and communities enhancing their abilities to engage with the formal institutions in the economic, political, social and cultural spheres of their life. Options include providing children a basic education, professional training, technological literacy programmes and dissemination of information. Providing children with a basic education is needed and by the time being there is an enormous lack of funding. Some children are unable to attend because of the lack of a school accessible to their homes or because books, school uniforms or tuition fees are a heavy burden. ICTs can help by providing alternative possibilities for education. A concrete and extra effort on education has to be made to compensate for the current situation regarding women. Educated women have fewer children, get medical help sooner and provide better care, education and nutrition for their children. This reduces hunger, infant and maternal mortality, the spread of diseases, and environmental damage. The low levels of literacy, infrastructure development, factors of physical, economic and social access as well as linguistic barriers still impede the spread of ICTs in Africa. These problems associated with the adoption of new technologies are often connected with the scarce technical capabilities of users, making it necessary to familiarise individuals with the new technologies simultaneously with the deployment of infrastructures and applications in their mother tongue, their local customs and in harmony with their cultural symbols. In this frame, technological literacy programmes aim at bringing citizens closer to technology by using general purpose equipment running computer programs with simple interfaces which are adapted to the cultural environment are highly valuable. These technological literacy programmes are often carried out in the so-called telecentres, premises provided with ICT infrastructures and specialised personnel dedicated to teaching new technologies to the population located in the area of influence of the centre. As users get involved using ICTs, new social interactions are appearing via email or chat rooms, and they have profound implications for the social support networks. Social norms are being affected by ICTs, especially, the Internet, which is creating new networks through which individuals can share values and experiences. This sharing might relax cultural barriers and strength cultural practices that encourage health seeking behaviour and, in general, can support a better life. People are inclined to feel more "included" when online, because of the anonymity of users in virtual domains, and the fact that users are not physically present. These factors contribute to the search of information and improvement of daily habits. Training can also be supported by ICTs. It is increasingly frequent to use these technologies for education of professionals using digital content and remote connections or interactive applications when students cannot go to the training center. In particular, distance learning can support the training of professionals in the health sector, providing access to best practices and directions to improve skills. Strongly linked to education, the spread of information is emerging through different means such as broadcasting public health messages, awareness campaigns through mass media outlets, dissemination of preventive information, capacity building through online training or public policy advocacy through online discussions and debates. In particular, the knowledge dissemination can be a key tool for sharing medical information: current medical research, breakthroughs in treatment and new approaches in patient care which can be useful for patients, health functionaries, students and researchers.

 

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