Teaching Method can best be defined as the type of principal & methods used for Instruction. There are many types of teaching methods, depending on what information or skill the teacher is trying to convey. Class participation demonstration, recitation and memorization are some of the teaching methods being used. When a teacher deciding in their method, they need to flexible and willing to adjust their style according to their student, student success in their academic achievement based on effect on effective teaching methods. According to study statistically significant difference teaching strategies of teaching used by the learner & the teacher. While the relationship between the compensation strategy & the academic success of the student was found to have a negative meaningful relation with academic success. However, the students the teachers were met cognitive strategies & compensation strategies. For effective teaching to take place, a good method must be adopted be a teacher.
A teacher has many options when choosing a style, by which to teach. The teacher may write lesson plan of their own, borrow plans from other teacher, or search online, or within book for lesson plan. When deciding what method to use, a teacher needs to consider student background, knowledge, environment & learning goals. Teacher are aware that student’s have different way of absorbing information & of demonstrating their knowledge. Teacher often use to techniques which cater to multiple learning style to help students retain information & strength in understanding. A variety of strategies & method are used to ensure that all students have equal opportunities to learn.
A lesson plan may be carried out in several ways. Like Questioning, Explaining, Modeling, Collaborating, Demonstrating. The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning.
Language learning in the schools is often considered a lesson that is not quite important. This fact caused by the mindset of teachers and parents which regard the clever children can only be reflected by higher value in the exact subjects, such as mathematics. This mindset resulting in a lack of awareness about the importance of language subject, even there are some people who assume that language subject is not something that should be studied seriously. The efforts to improve the speakability should not be overlooked in order to improve the student’s writing ability. Language subject that can improve the speakability of the students, which furthermore will take effect on student’s writing ability, are not considered as an important thing. The result is often encountered on students who have difficulty in expressing and writing their ideas. This problem will continue and persist until they pursue to the higher education, even up to the university. Based on the fact mentioned, it is necessary to improve the learning strategies that can help the learner in developing and improving their ability to write essays. Language learning, especially writing, basically focused on guiding the students so they can express their ideas, thoughts, feelings or opinions through essay writing, writing a personal book, summarizing books, making posters, and making a logbook. Another drawback in language learning is a factor from the teacher who emphasizes the theory more than practice, by motivating the students to habituate writing their ideas is the first step to inculcate the culture of writing to our young generation.
Language learning particularly covering two main categories which are interrelated like, speaking and writing. Based on these problems, a method of learning is needed that can motivate the students to be creative and active in language learning, especially in writing essays. Important methods of learning to write which should be applied are the “whole language” method. Furthermore, the “whole language” method is combined with the student's learning styles, that are field independent and field dependent style. Both factors become independent variables in this context which affect the ability of students in writing essays. Based on the background mentioned earlier, this study narrows down the problem on experimental treatments variables which were learning methods that included “whole language method” and free writing method. Other variables are the students' learning styles (field independent and field dependent) as the variable of character attributes. These variables will be linked with the ability of secondary school children to write essays.
The terminology of “writing” is a creative process that resulted in the creation of non-fiction article. Writing can be done without having to wait for an idea to come. If the inventions phase: finding an idea or topic to be written has been done and the materials are ready, the writing process already can be started (Son, 2010: 15). Furthermore, Dalman (2015: 4) defines the writing process as an activity of delivering the messages (communication) with the use of written language as an instrument or media. Thus, the author can produce the variety of shapes and colors in a creative writing which accordance with the aims and objectives of his writings. According to Emigs (1977) as cited by Boscolo et al. (2007: 76) about writing, which described as the following: “Study of writing as learning models anticipated the emphasis of the cognitive approach to writing to learn the concept. Since the 1980’s, studies on the elaborative function of writing mainly focused on two main research lines: the discourse synthesis and writing to learn. In the studies of writing to learn, the thing must be emphasized in the role of writing as thinking and the learning instrument, and the researcher's attention is focused on the effect of writing on the comprehension of information learned from oral or written communication at various levels of complexity. In studies of writing from the various sources, the additional focus of the research is on how to elaborate the knowledge and organize it into a new text.” see more of the article