Vaccines are a critical method to stem the escalation of the COVID19 pandemic. As of April 8, 2020, there were more than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates being developed (Pogue et al 2020). This vaccine development is moving quickly; two vaccine candidates had entered Phase 1 clinical trials prior to March 30, 2020 and five vaccine candidates were in Phase 1 clinical trials as of April 9, 2020. Given the big population and the relatively high vaccine hesitancy for existing vaccines as well as poor vaccination coverage, understanding vaccine acceptance is critical being a major source of study for research projects for undergraduate students.
Immunization is one of the most cost-effective preventive interventions among the range of measures combating the pandemic. Many countries have accelerated vaccine development and developed COVID-19 vaccination programs; as of early 2021, there were over 170 vaccines in pre-clinical development and over 60 vaccines in clinical development. Despite the fact that vaccine research has advanced at a breakneck pace, public acceptance and negative attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines remain significant obstacles. Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine is recognized as a critical factor in determining the success of a vaccination program. Previous studies have looked at the acceptance rate of the 2009 HIN1 influenza vaccine, which is important because public acceptance of vaccines is important.
Given that actual or perceived vaccine efficacy may be low, it's also important to figure out how vaccine efficacy affects acceptance. Given the potential for alarmist, sensationalist portrayals of the pandemic, the high use of news media is concerning. Myths, rumors, and disinformation can also spread swiftly online, particularly through social media. Uncertainty about COVID19, for example, about whether people have natural immunity and whether specific home remedies (garlic, vitamins, and saline nose rinsing) help protect against coronavirus, may have been exacerbated by people's reliance on social media. It could also explain why some people aren't sure if the virus was created by humans and released on purpose. Uncertainty and rapidly changing information could have contributed to the virus's increased fear. These findings highlight the necessity of disseminating accurate COVID-19 health information to the general public via a variety of mediums (news, social media, and government websites) in order to correct misconception. The impact of media exposure could be linked to the dissemination of critical pandemic health information. Although early media exposure appears to have assisted health-protective practices, as the epidemic progresses, media fatigue—when people become numb to continual messaging—may diminish this benefit. Excessive or misplaced health protective behaviors, such as presenting for diagnostic testing when the actual risk of exposure is low, may also result from repeated media exposure, which can have long-term health consequences. According to emerging evidence from organizations that have conducted widespread testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, between 2 and 8 out of every 10 infections may be asymptomatic. Those who are infected, even if they are asymptomatic, can still spread the virus to others. Furthermore, during the incubation period, people appear to be infectious and asymptomatic (Lauer et al, 2020). People frequently rely on symptoms to diagnose illness, assuming that if they don't have any, they are healthy. In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, such assumptions could have serious ramifications in terms of community transmission and reduced health-protective behaviours. As a result, public health campaigns about COVID-19 must address these misunderstandings. It is critical to investigate COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and predictors, as well as attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines among student nurses.
Getting people with positive attitude is a promising way of enhancing willingness to volunteer in management of COVID-19 crisis. Furthermore, because of the high risk of infection, nurses work under great pressure when dealing with these patients, as a result, they need a helping hand to be able to combat the rapid spread of the disease condition. The willingness of nursing students to serve as volunteers regarding COVID-19 will play an important role in achieving victory in the battle against the epidemic in the country, hence, the need to conduct this study at this time. Previous studies have explored the knowledge and attitudes of medical staff towards infectious diseases and their willingness to work during an epidemic. Projectclue.com reported the outcome of a study on the knowledge and attitudes of critical care clinicians during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. They found that only 82.3% of medical staff expressed willingness to care for patients with Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (swine flu).