The evolution of school supervision is visible throughout history as a result of learning philosophy and of social and political factors. By definition, supervision means guiding, supporting, controlling, overseeing, or ensuring that the anticipated principles are met. Thus, school supervision includes the process of ensuring that the values, rules, regulations and procedures prescribed for the purpose of implementing and achieving the goals of education are effectively enforced. As a consequence, supervision requires the use of expert expertise and experience to monitor and organize the process of enhancing teaching and learning programs in schools. In addition, supervision could be seen as an interaction involving some kind of defined relationship with and between individuals, so that people influence others. To some degree, this mode of interaction is profoundly challenged by a predetermined program of instruction. According to Projectclue.com, the systematization of the interaction of those responsible for working within the administrative framework is called supervision. Thus in the course of its duty, the supervisor is required to initiate a variety of practices that will contribute to a fruitful convergence of these two contexts in order to achieve peace and satisfaction. Supervision is a multifaceted method that focuses on training teachers to provide knowledge to enhance their teaching efficiency. The common feature of instruction and supervision is that these processes take place in a face-to-face environment. School monitoring is one of the few practices that can provide sufficient skills for effective teaching and learning in our schools. We all need to know more about the effects of school supervision in Nigeria. I assume that the emerging trend in school supervision problems today calls for the consequences of supervision to be examined at all levels of education. The purpose of school supervision is to help teachers improve their education. Education supervision is required by the Departments of Education and local school districts to support teachers in delivering high-quality education to public school students. The process of supervision of an instructional teacher also requires direct assistance to enhance the techniques of classroom practice through observation and assessment of teacher performance. This technique is currently conducted in local school districts via checklists and narrative forms that assess teachers in a face-to-face environment. Efficient supervision is seen as one of the keys to the complex problem of enhancing the quality and performance of basic education, the quality of education management and the quality of education attainment. According to most researchers, positive factors influencing the quality of teachers have a role to play in improving the quality of teaching and curriculum implementation by controlling unnecessary absenteeism, incompetence in the planning of lessons and laxity in book marking and feedback. They continue to argue that an efficient supervisor should be a little more knowledgeable about modern methods of administration and teaching. It is the supervisor who is responsible for quality; thus if head teachers were to play their role, there would be no need for quality debate.
Furthermore, researchers described challenges faced by external supervision, especially in developing countries and Africa, to include, among other things, insufficient travel funds and vehicles, weak supervision strategies, too many schools per officer, and time constraints. There is also a conflict between their advisory and control positions, which yield little to school success and efficiency due to weak human relations. Most school of thoughts concluded that school management is merely a matter of maintaining strict adherence to the rules and regulations and allegiance to the principals. Not this, but also there is hardly any follow-up, except by the internal supervisor on behalf of the inspectors, hence the need to reconsider internal supervision as a tool for quality education in Nigeria. The primary goal of any supervisor is to bring about improvement, not to preserve the status quo, in order to increase the standard of quality education. Many of the proposed changes came from mid-level or upper-level management, and then went down for implementation. Some of these changes may impose new standards; they will require new skills, inconvenience, may change administrative structures and staff roles, or may put pressure on the status quo. As a link between management and staff, it is the responsibility of the principal or head of each secondary school to ensure that improvements are effectively made to the school. Studies observed that both absenteeism and lateness are symptomatic of education systems that have poor teacher management mechanisms and are unable to provide incentives to inspire teachers to change their attitudes towards work. Some sanctions and penalties for lateness and absenteeism have been prescribed by secondary school monitoring board, but head teachers seem reluctant to implement them because professional culture does not encourage the requisite compliance authority. This problem of supervision complicates matters because it affects the dedication of teachers to work, the measurable pattern of attendance and the quality of the delivery of services in the classroom and in the school as a whole.
Motivation is hard to describe. The word "motivation" comes from the Latin word "move" which means "move;" therefore, motivation can mean the process of evoking movement in the person. It's a very important aspect that decides how effective we are with what we do. It acts as a guiding force that gives us the will to achieve a mission and ultimately succeeds in achieving the ultimate objective. The level of motivation can vary from day to day depending on how we feel or how we perceive a certain experience. Motivation also pushes us to stick to the low selections of facts and recipes needed to keep our development going. Motivation is an important element in the teaching and learning process. Effective learning depends on the high or low motivation of students. It will push learners to the aim of learning. Motivation is also the key to success in improving the teaching process. It is in line with the above circumstances that the effects of school monitoring and its influence on student academic achievement need to be investigated. Supervision also has a long way to go in Nigeria's education system