PRE-MARITAL SEX AND ITS MENACE AMONG IN - SCHOOL YOUTH.A CASE OF
SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ATIBA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OYO, OYO
This study examines the meaning, causes of Pre-Marital Sex and its menace among in School youths in Atiba Local government Oyo, Oyo state. The objectives were; to identify the factors that can prompt the youth to engage in premarital sex. The study utilizes an empirical survey design. The sample population consists of one hundred and fifty students randomly drawn from the four selected secondary schools in oyo town. The instrument used to elicit information from the respondents was a questionnaires designed by the researcher. Data was collected and analyzed with simple percentage while the hypotheses stated were tested with percentage (%). The study revealed that consumption of alcohol and use of drug was considered as an activity which influenced by peers. Drinking alcohol was a significant predicator for youths to engage in premarital sex. This could be high risk factors for early initiation of sexual behaviour because of a specific reasoning process due to which young people cannot control themselves. Pre-marital sex among in school characterized with numerous factors. Majority of youths do not use a contraceptive during pre-marital sex, a good number of youths are defiled, leading to premarital sex, and that youths after pre-marital sex tend to have sex with anybody. In conclusion, sex education should be part of school curriculum in order to educate youths. Parents should develop effective communication skill with their children, be their friends and have positive attitudes. Vocational training, strict laws among others are the measures that can help to reduce the way youths engage in pre-marital sex. It was concluded that pre-marital sex was rampant among the youths which could be speeding up the spread of HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy. Hence, require immediate responses.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii-ix
1.1 Background to the study 1-3
1.2 Statement of the problem 4-6
1.3 Research questions. 6
1.4 Research hypotheses 7
1.5 Objectives of the study 7
1.6 Significance of the study 8-9
1.7 Definition of terms 9-10
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Introduction 11-12
2.2 Causes of premarital sex and its menace among in school youths 13-14
2.3 factors affecting youths in sexual behaviour 15
2.3.1 Age 15-16
2.3.2 Exposure to mass media 16-17
2.3.3 Knowledge on sexuality and reproductive health issues 18-19
2.3.4 Socio economic of parents 19-21
2.3.5 parent- children communication 21-22
2.36 peer group influence 22-23
2.3.7 Relationship with opposite sex 23-24
2.4 Role of pre-marital sex on the spread of HIV/AIDS 25-26
2.5 consequence of sexual activity among the youth 26-27
2.6 Theories 27
2.6.1 The deviance perspective theory 28
2.6.2 Differential Association theory 29-30
3.1 Research design 31
3.2 study area and scope of the study 31-32
3.3 Study population 32
3.4 sample size 32-33
3.5 sampling technique 34
3.6 Instrument of data collection 34
3.7 method of data collection (Questionnaire method) 34-35
3.8 method of data analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction 36
4.2 Data presentation 36
4.3presentation of demographic variables 37-43
4.4 presentations of substantive issues of the research 44-61
4.5 Test of hypothesis 62-69
SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction 70
5.2 Summary of findings 70
5.3 Conclusion 76
5.4 Recommendation 77-78
1.1 Background to the study
Premarital sex is a sexual intercourse engaged in by persons who are not
married to each other. It is generally used in reference to individuals who are
presumed not yet of marriage age, or between adults who may likely marry each
other eventually, but who are engaging in sexual activity before marriage
(Akinleye and onifade, 2010).
In the light of this, pre-marital sex is an illegal act against the norms of the
society. It is only pertinent to note that the continued high rate of pre-marital sex in
Nigeria is traceable to post Nigeria civil war due to low socio economic status of
the people (Casper, 2009). In the traditional Nigerian society, sex outside marriage
is forbidden, and people did not express their opinions and views on love, sex and
marriage openly. Ukachi (2007) emphasized that there were strict norms that
determined codes of conduct, established norms in order to guide individual
members towards socially acceptable behaviours’. Hence, the bride and the groom
may not have slept with each other until after the marriage rites. Such was the
practice of most Nigerian communities. Also in the olden days, social punishments
like songs of contempt and degradation were meted out at marriage to brides that lost their virginity before the marriage night. This made most girls to abstain from
premarital sex. They strove to maintain the good name of their families (Eze,
Furthermore, the advent of Christianity also strengthened the restrictive
attitude towards premarital sexual expressions. Schools were built and managed by
missionaries and very stringent codes of conduct were imposed on heterosexual
activities. They aimed at preventing children from any type of sexual activity,
which was regarded as an act of immorality and sin against God.
According to the study carried out by UNICEF (2001) on global morality, it
was discovered that premarital sex was considered particularly unacceptable in
"predominantly Muslim nations" such as Indonesia, Pakistan and Egypt, each
having over 90% disapproval. While others people within Western European
nations were the most accepting such as Spain, Germany and France having less
than 10% disapproval. However, premarital sex has been morally unacceptable in
almost every human society that regards marriage as the legitimate requirement for
sexual behavior (Christensen, 2007).The family institution is where sexual
activities or intercourse takes place between two adult of opposite sex. Pre-marital
sex is not based on young people alone; a good number of older adult who are not
married are also involved in pre-marital sex. (Andrew, 2006).
In a recent report released by Centre for the study of Adolescents in Kenya
(2007), the age of sexual debut is now at all time low of between 8 and 12 years.
Young people had sex before they reach the age of 20. This increases the chances
of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases. Also, the consequences of
pre-marital sex led to sexually transmitted diseases as well as HIV are higher for
females. If a young girl becomes pregnant, she places herself and her unborn child
at risk because, a young girl’s body will not have developed to the point of being
able to handle child birth safely. Even if a young mother escapes severe heath
consequences, she will still face serious responsibilities of parenthood (Alo, 2008).
Modern society is becoming loose because people are doing things in different
ways such that premarital sex is becoming more rampant, that is, existing or
spreading everywhere in a way that cannot be controlled. youth who feel unloved
or unappreciated are more likely to seek comfort in a sexual relationship (UNICEF,
Many people use sex as a way to create or get all what they need by
engaging in such activity, some ladies used sex as the only source of getting money
and most men and women engage in sex just to satisfy their sexual urge. The need
for love, touch and attachment may lead some people to give in to sex in other to
save a relationship. Those who mistake sex for love and base their relationship on physical pleasure will find their relationship unfulfilling; eventually it will make it
worse and dissolve (Alo, 2008).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Researchers have observed that there is prevalence of premarital sexual
practices among the youth and the teenagers in contemporary society, which leads
to high incidence of teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. It’s
therefore important to find out the causes and characteristics of pre marital sex
since it facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy which is
dangerous to teenagers. Most writers and school authorities frown on adolescents’
indulgence in premarital sex. Some communities carry out disciplinary action on
youths who indulge in it.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic is the world’s most deadly disease. UNICEF, in
1998 in Africa estimated that 200,000 lives were lost as a result of conflict and
war. AIDS killed 2.2 million people. The disease is now the leading killer in the
world. In sub Saharan Africa, it has killed 16.3 million lives since the epidemic
began. A premarital sex case has recently spurred a major concern among the
youth. This is a common question among the teenagers and engaged couples. For
instance in Nepal one third of the students (39%) engage in pre-marital sex.
However, youth are still practicing premarital sex and thus they share the blame
and responsibility for the increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS (Ramesh 2008).
The Nigeria Federal Health Management Board, (2009) engages in series of
campaigns on all our social media to create public awareness on the danger and
circulation of sexually transmitted diseases. Early sexual activity usually exposes
adolescents to risks of pregnancy and many diseases. The large proportion of the
young aged population and the increasing incidence of unsafe sex among them, in
many developing countries, expose them to greater social, economic and health related problems, as this increases the threats of HIV and other STD, which can
cause serious morbidity and even mortality.
Starrs (1999) indicated that induced abortion among teenagers is a problem
in sub Saharan Africa but that the magnitude is difficult to establish due to social,
moral and legal implications. In a situation where it is illegal to induce abortion,
youth often sought help from health practitioners in a secret or covert manner.
These practitioners are unskilled, inexperienced and work unsanitary conditions.
The risks of unsafe abortion include such long term consequences such as chronic
pain, inflammatory disease and secondary infertility. Pregnancies, therefore, occur
to many youths before they are fully developed physically for childbirth. This
exposes them to myriad health risks that may damage the reproductive tract, and in
case of preference for abortion, abortion complication and elevated risks of
maternal mortality and low birth weight. Owing to the social consequences of child
birth such as dropping out in schools, ostracism by peers and emerging new social status of motherhood, some youths preferred induced abortion. Pregnant youths
may go on to becoming adolescent mothers who typically have low education
attainment and often face economic hardships (Orubuloye, 2005).
It is basically on the above background that the youth have suffered a lot
from unwanted pregnancy, the HIV/AIDS scourge and its infections have become
a serious threat among the youth recently and this has shortened the life span of the
youth. With high levels of the premature birth and an increase in the level of infant
mortality rate, the spread of HIV has increased through pre-marital sex. It is based
on the stated issue above that this work set out to find out the role of pre-marital
sex in the spread of HIV. Finding out youths attitude will provide the necessary
information for planning useful intervention programmes aimed at solving the
problems arising from seemingly adolescent’ premarital sexual practices.
1.3 Research Questions
i) What is the attitude of in- school youth to pre-marital sex?
ii) What factors could induce youth to engage in pre-marital?
iii) What is the impact of peer group in pre marital sex?
iv) What are the possible consequences of pre-marital sex on the youth?
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