Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag, attached to an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. The class management system provides the functionalities of the overall system such as displaying ID tag transaction, recording attendance and other minor functions. The tools used for achieving the system are assembly language (the programming language for the microcontroller AT89C51), the Micro Integrated Development Environment (MIDE) used is called MIDE asm-51 (this is the environment where the assembly language was written, built in order to generate the .hex file for simulating the system and burning the microcontroller) and other physical components like reset button, 40 pin IC socket, ribbon cable and vero board. The methodology used in system is strictly based on Rapid Application Prototyping. The system comprises of the RFID module reader typically contains a module (transmitter and Receiver), a control unit, a coupling element (antenna) and RFID tags. The System could be able to store the student’s data in the AT89C51 microcontroller. It reduces and eliminates paper based work, saving the time of attendance call; authenticate attendance with no proxy attendance.
1.1 Background of the study
Classroom Attendance Management System (CAMS) is the easiest way to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-consuming process. The most common means of tracking student attendance in the classroom is by enforcing the students to manually sign the attendance sheet, which is normally passed around the classroom while the lecturer is conducting the lecture. For instance, lecturers with a large class may find the hassle of having the attendance sheet being passed around the class and the manual signing of attendance by students are burdensome and most likely distract them from teaching and getting full attention from the students .Besides, as the attendance sheet is passed around the class, some students may accidentally or purposely sign another student's name. The first case leads to a student missing out their name, while the latter leads to a false attendance record. Another issue of having the attendance record in a hardcopy Form is that a lecturer may lose the attendance sheet. In terms of attendance analysis, the lecturer also has to perform manual computation to obtain the students’ attendance percentage, which normally consume a lot of time.
RFID (Radio frequency identification) is a new technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person. Radio frequency identification can be a powerful tool in helping to manage student‘s attendance throughout the working school day and also enhance classroom security. RFID technology has been applied to solve problems where it is necessary to take automatically record the movements and locations of students in a classroom of school/university environment. RFID, which is an automatic identification technology used for retrieving from or storing data on to RFID Tags without any physical contact.
Recent advancements in chip manufacturing technology are making RFID practical for new applications and settings, particularly consumer item level tagging. These advancements have the potential to revolutionize supply-chain management, inventory control, and logistics. At its most basic, RFID systems consist of small transponders, or tags, attached to physical objects. RFID tags may soon become the most pervasive microchip in history. An RFID system primarily comprises of RFID Tags, RFID Reader, and Middleware. RFID Tags are uniquely and universally identified by an identification sequence, governed by the rubrics of EPC global Tag Data Standard. A tag can either be passively activated by an RFID reader or it can actively transmit RF signals to the reader. When wirelessly interrogated by RFID transceivers, or readers, tags respond with some identifying information that may be associated with arbitrary data records. Thus, RFID systems are one type of automatic identification system, similar to optical bar codes.
There are many kinds of RFID systems used in different applications and settings. These systems have different power sources, operating frequencies, and functionalities. The properties and regulatory restrictions of a particular RFID system will determine its manufacturing costs, physical specifications, and performance. Some of the most familiar RFID applications are item-level tagging with electronic product codes, proximity cards for physical access control, and contact-less payment systems. Many more applications will become economical in the coming years.
While RFID adoption yields many efficiency benefits, it still faces several hurdles. Besides the typical implementation challenges faced in any information technology system and economic barriers, there are major concerns over security and privacy in RFID systems.
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