1. Laundry and bar soap
2. Toilet Soap
3. Medicate Soap
4. Antiseptic Soap
6. Liquid Detergent
7. Tiles Cleaner
5.Satin & Silk paints
8.Vinyl matt Emulsion
9.Fire Retardant paint
10.Anti Rust & primer coatings
2.Two pack Epoxy
4.Anti-Skid Deck Enamel
7.Road Making paint
8.Silicon High Temperature paint
9.Fire Retartant paint
10.Chemical Resistant paint
15.Cellulose Base paint
3. Hair Cream
4. Hair Conditioner
5. Styling Gels
8. Glycerin and rose water
1. Face Powder
2. Anti Perspirant Deodorant
3. After Shave
4. Tooth Paste
2. Rust Remover
5. Chalk Production
6. Toilet RollS
7. Purification of Water
3. Sulphur ointment
4. Dusting Powder
6. Textile Design
7. Textile Ink
2.Shoe sole gum
6.Poly body filler
1. Nitrocellulose Thinner
2. Slow Thinner
3. Printing Ink Thinner(Fast drying
7.Cellulose wood paint
1.Engine oil production
2.Break cluth fluid
The world today is witnessing a tremendous technological growth.
Technology itself is the brainchild of man's intellectual endowment by the God almighty. He has imbued man with drive and spirit to explore to the fullest, all the wealth of creation.All that man needs therefore, is to discover the physical and mental capabilities and apply them on creation for his benefits.
This is the foundation of manufacturing tecnnology.The creatures living and non-living-are subjected to careful analysis in search of material (raw material) that is of technological relevance.These are refined,combined or transformed to a state in which it becomes maximally useful to man.It is only apposite therefore,to note that all technological inventions ranging from simple to complex ones,owe their existence to raw materials which abound in creation .
Expectedly,one of the shortcomings of most technological goods is depreciation or transformation in the course of consumption .These culminate in wastes.But technology has advanced further by designing means of containing these wastes.This is done through recycling the purported waste materials.Thus technology is just but a cyclic phenomenon-the raw materials are processed into finished goods,the are rendered waste products through consumption;and through process;the waste products are converted into raw materials.It has become clear therefore,that the main focus of technology is search for raw materials;this embraces both human and natural resources.Onefound,they are processed into the desired products.
Thus technology lays emphasis on the practice and application of applied science that has practical or industrial uses so as meet man's demands.The tendency of technology seeking practical and industrial expressions is the foundation upon which industrialization is predicted.Industrializationtherefore ,means the management of resources-human and material-as recommended by technologist.
Now consider the following expression (i)A+B=AB(ii)A+B+C=ABC.The first being that two substances.A and B are combined third ,AB which is the desired substance,isobtained.The third substance has the property of incorporating all the good qualities of both A and B into a single substance.AB gives maximum satisfaction to the consumer .The second means transformation, through interactionbetween A
and B,to yield desired C; different in every respect from both A and B.They summarize the technological process involved in manufacturing.In industries the raw material is fed into the machinery,observing the processing condtions eventually the products are turned out.
A look at the world today would reveal most painfully that Africa has not arrived technologically.Invie of this disturbing revelation;one would like to ask the following questions.
i) Are we possessive of sentiments that arenegative disposed towards technological growth?
ii) Is God prejudiced against us in the share of human and material resources?
iii) Or is it a problem that find expression in our not being able to positively motivate our selvesphysically,mentally and spiritually?
An attempt to answer these question objectively will show that God, in His infinite mercy,is more than fair to us. The human and material resources that abound in Africa,are the envy of even the industrialized countries rather ,the problem is with us.Come to think of it, what progresss can be expected from apeople who regard technology as taboo; some people who close thier eyes against their human and natural endowments? Virtually none; or little of any .This explains the poor and lamentable status of most Africa countries today.
But the trend must be reversed.We have remained in slumber for so long.We have all it takes -human and material resources for technological transformation.Happily the lord is moving,through P.A.L.I.P . to transform and project thispeople to technological glory Amen.We have to start fromsomewhere.This body is fullaware of our potentials in human and material resources can effectively be utilized only when we are technologically equiped and industrialized.Determination and commitment is the key word.
How does P.A.L.P wish to achieve this monumental goal ? This question seems baffling in view of the human and material demands of this drive .But by His grace,we shall share smiles of goal attainment.
For the purpose of this program,we have divided the manufacturing steps as dicussed in this part in to four:
These are chemicals that are combined under prescribed conditions to give the desired product.It is important that the right chemicals and stipulated quantity are used in order to guarantee the quality of products.
This is the ratio of percentage by weight of the added ingredient.This is simply the quantity of various materials needed to be combined to give the end product.The quantity must be adhered to strictly sinces the quantity of product may be compromised if altered.
This refers to the productive steps to be observed in the course of producing the goodin question.During production a number of steps are involved;but they are carried out orderly-first thing first ,until the last stage is reached.
These are the materials,besides the chemicals,which are needed for the production of the finished goods.They could be machinesor simple apparatus.The machines come in various types and designs.But there are categorized into manual or Electric on account of power soures.
(a)Electric Machines: In this type of machine,the power source is electricity,which can be direct or alternating.The electrically poweredmachine usually combine many features that perform different operations such as boiling,mixing cooling etc.
(b)Manual machines:This type of machine relies on manpower or human raw energy for the power in order to perform the needed operations.For the fact that it depends on human energy there is a limit to the amount of components that can be fed into the machine and quantity of expected product.
The machines-Electric and Manual show a number of similarities.Anumber ofdifferences also exist.These are summarized in the table below:
|1.Human energy as power source||Electricity as power source|
|2.Operation is tedious and time comsuming||Operation is easy and saves time|
|3.low productive capacity||High productive capacity|
|4.Efficiency is low||Efficiency is high|
In the course of production ,boiling,mixing,measuring ,cutting,grinding,drying,molding,fermenting,stamping,wrapping etc. operation are undertaken.Consequently,machines,which perform these operations,are designed to increase production rates.
The machines and equipment needed for any giving product are treated in every subject in this book.However,the major types of machines/equipment for most subjects are treated below:
1.Boiler:This is the equipment for boiling some of the chemicals to enable them undergoes the necessary changes in the formation of the product.This also involve source of generating heat.
2.Mixer:The mixerturns and chums the mix so to bring uniformity of property and homogeneity in the finished product.There exist electric and manual varieties.They are employed in mixing various chemicals for the formation of the product.
3.CuttingMachines:This is the machine designed to cut the finished products in to chosen size e.g. in soap production where the production is cut into laundry or bar forms.
4.StampingMachines:This is the machine used to insert the trade mark onthe product e.g soap.
5.GrindingMachine:This machine functions to grind the product into fine powder particles sizes so that dissolution in liquids is facilitated. e.g production of detergents.
6.DryingMachine:This machine helps to expel the residual liquid or moisture in the product e.g in the production of detergent.
1.Coolingtank:This tank holds liquid which circulates around the mould contains liquid or vicious products,and enable cooling and solidification by heat exchange,e.gcirculating liquid around mould in candle production.
2.Mould:This is a specially designed container in which the product loosesheat,solidifies and takes shape.Themould gives shape to the product.Example are those employed in the manufacture of soap,candle,etc.
They are found on plastic ,wooden on metallic forms.Themould could be partitioned to give products with small dimension,as for the laundry soaps or designed to give large once e.g.the bar soaps or candle sticks.Themould differs from each other on account of the material used for construction.
|i.||Very costly||Costly||Less costly|
|ii.||Very durable||Durable||Less cost|
|iii.||Rust resistant||Rusts must be oiled after use||Susceptible to microbial attacks-use e.g by mucor|
|iv.||Production retain size of mould||Product retain size of mould||Product shrinks|
|v.||Product always||Product smooth too||Product not smooth|
|vi.||Product does not dry fast||Product dries fast||Product dries very fast|
3.Fermenting/Storage tank:This is a container where solid chemicals are dissolved in liquid or solvent to gives solution the right concentration.It is only when they aredissolved in solvent giving solutions that they become useful for the production process.Examples are caustic soda or sodium bicarbonate solution which are fermented in tanks before they are used for soap production .
4.Wrapper:This is the paper or cellophane covering for goods e.g soap ,candle etc.
5.Containers:This is used for packing and preserving goods e.g. soap,candle etc.
6. Carton:This is an open box paper,wooden or plastic-for carring the products.It is well labelled and useful for marketing the products;e.g.soap,candlejeleen, e.t.c.
7.Measuringinstrument:There are measuring instruments used in the manufacturing industry.The onesneeded in this program are:
i.Thermometer:This tells thedegree of hotness or coldness (temperature) of solutions or chemicals.It is particularly used where the temperature is important in the course of the manufacture of any goods.
ii.Hydrometer:This enables the manufacturer to know the specific gravity of a chemical or solution in using hydrometer,dip the narrow glass tubing in to the solution and release the rubber bulb held between your fingers . Then withdraw and raise the gauge on the liquid in the graduated cylinder to your eye level,and take your reading.
Note.If the gauge is above stated numeber on the scale of the hydrometer,its concentration is high ;but if below it,its concentrationis low.It is therefore very essential that you study the graduation of the hydrometer before use.For a given solution take and release about three times before you take your reading.
iii.Scale This enables the weight of substance to be read.
8.Heating system:This refers to the source of heat.This may be gas,wood,andelecticity.The heating system is sometimes very necessary in the manufacturing industry.This is because the heat being applied has the effect of increasing the internal molecules energies of reacting species.The resultant effect is increased in reaction rates.
It is equally used in cases where enhanceddissolution of solid chemical is needed .With the applied heat energy,the attractive forces between themolecles in the solid are weakened.The end result is the crumbing of crystalline structure with eventual mobility of the particles in the liquid.
Hence the solid dissolves in the liquid and forms solution.
For any of this equipment,contact PALIP.